Postal address Botany MRC-166
National Museum of Natural History
Smithsonian Institution
PO Box 3702
Washington, DC 20013, USA
Phone 202-633-0967
Fax 202-786-2563
Email &

Degrees (all Summa cum laude)
1975 University of Louvain (Belgium) Degree in Classics.
1981 University of Louvain (Belgium) Ph.D. in Classics.
1997 University of Toulouse (France) Qualification to direct research programs. History.

Recent positions and appointments
1993-1994 – Visiting Professor in History of Pharmacy, University of Barcelona, Spain.
1997-1998 – Visiting Professor in Humanities, National Foundation for Scientific Research, Spain.
1998-1999 – Visiting Professor in History of Biology/ Botany, University of Naples, Italy.
1999-2000 – Research Fellow, Dumbarton Oaks, Harvard University, Washington, DC, USA.
2000-2001 – Rockefeller Foundation Fellow, History of Science, University of Oklahoma, USA.
2002-2004 – Scholar in Residence, National Library of Medicine, History of Medicine, Bethesda, MD, USA.

2002-2004 – Research Associate, Department of Botany, NMNH, SI, Washington, DC, USA.
2005-2007 – Scientific Program Administrator, Department of Botany, NMNH, SI, Washington, DC, USA.
2007-2009 – Historian of Sciences, Department of Botany, NMNH, SI, Washington, Dc, USA.

2007-2008 – President, Washington Academy of Sciences
2005-2008 – President, International Association for the History of Nephrology
2006- – General Secretary, International Society for the History of Medicine

1975 First Prize. National competition for the best degree thesis. Ministry of Education, Belgium.
Thesis: Les Thęriaka de Nicandre.
1977 First Prize. National competition for travel grants. Ministry of Education, Belgium. 
Thesis: Les Alexipharmaka de Nicandre.
1997 Triennial De Jonckheere Prize for the History of Medicine. Academy of Medicine, Belgium. 
Thesis: Une histoire du médicament en Occident.
1999 First Prize. Annual Competition. Academy of Philosophy, Letters and the Arts, Belgium.
Essay: L’édition aldine des deux traités de toxicologie attribués ŕ Dioscoride.
2003 Award for Achievement in Behavioral and Social Sciences, Washington Academy of Sciences.

1991 Life Fellow, International Academy for the History of Pharmacy, Den Hague, Netherlands.
1997 Fellow, Linnean Society of London.
2003 Fellow, Washington Academy of Sciences.
2004 Life Fellow, Washington Academy of Sciences.

Many (including ones from Germany, Spain, Belgium, France, England, Italy, and now, USA), these enabling research stays such as at Ambrosian Library (Milan, Italy), Vatican Library (Rome, Italy), Library of the Royal Monastery (El Escorial, Spain), National Library (Paris, France), Topkapi Kütüphanesi (Istanbul, Turkey), National Library (Vienna, Austria), State Library of Bavaria (Münich, Germany).

Fields of interest
Ethnobotany, ethnopharmacology and ethnomedicine, particularly in the ancient cultures of the Mediterranean world from Antiquity to the Renaissance (Antiquity, Byzantium, the Arabic World, and the Middle Ages), including comparative ethnoscience.